Inside the cities, taxis are a pretty cheap option, if it’s too far to walk. We never tried any local buses. Between the cities, there’s bus, rail, and louage. Some buses are government run, and the rest are a hodge podge of local companies, using buses that by all rights should have been retired a long time ago. It is relatively hard to find out information about buses, except at the bus terminal. Tourist offices didn’t have timetables. The few buses we took weren’t really on time, and the guidebook time estimates were usually pretty far off (some faster, some slower). However, everyone is very happy to help you get on the right bus and figure out how to buy a ticket, etc.
The train network goes up and down the eastern coast, and also cuts inland farther north. There is a also a “TGM” (light-rail) route that will take you up the coast to Carthage and Sidi Bou Said from Tunis.